ASHP-Midyear Poster Presentation- Winter 2013

ASHP-Midyear Poster Presentation- Winter 2013

See my poster abstract below:

Title: Using an objective structured teaching exercise (OSTE) to develop pharmacy preceptors

Primary Author: Livia Macedo

Additional Authors:
Deborah A. Sturpe
Stuart T. Haines
Toyin Tofade
Cherokee Layson-Wolf
Mary Lynn McPherson

A potential model for preceptor development is the objective structured teaching exercise (OSTE), a unique method previously described in the medical education literature. During an OSTE, participants observe and practice clinical teaching skills and receive feedback in a low-threat environment through interaction with standardized students trained to portray specific roles. To date, there are no studies evaluating OSTE for pharmacy preceptor development. Our objective is to determine the feasibility and acceptability of the method.

The protocol was reviewed by the IRB and was deemed exempt because it involved normal instructional practices conducted in a commonly accepted educational setting. The project will consist of three phases. In Phase I, a comprehensive training needs analysis will be distributed to advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) community pharmacy preceptors. Data will also be collected from students’ APPE community pharmacy practice evaluations regarding the types of activities performed and value of feedback received during each rotation. These data will be used to identify topics for preceptor development that are amenable to the OSTE format. In Phase II, we will design, develop, implement, and evaluate a three-station OSTE. In Phase III, changes in preceptor behavior will be measured. This project is innovative because it will be the first to evaluate the utilization of OSTE for preceptor development in pharmacy education and to examine long-term behavioral changes.

P.S. Please let me know your thoughts and ideas about this research. Manuscript in the making…


A Whole New Mind Book Report by Daniel Pink

During my informal learning masters course (EDUC689) I had the opportunity to read the book “A Whole New Mind” by Daniel Pink and worked together with three peers in a book report. As a group, we enjoyed reading and learning about the evolution of our society from left brain to right brain thinking. We present our book report for “A Whole New Mind” by Daniel Pink. Enjoy!

A Whole New Mind Book Report by Daniel Pink

Thoughts About the Future of Workplace Learning

After hearing what many eLearning experts have to say…various thoughts came to mind about the future of workplace learning.
First, I am not sure why students are continuously going to classrooms to listen to didactic lectures…why not start self-directed and informal learning from day 1 in high school, university, and graduate school? This method will allow students to train for real world problems and experiences.
In the real world, we have workplaces with a collaborating environment – “ideally” – where people learn by continuously performing a skill, learn via self-directed and informal learning via the internet, books, with their peers, twitter, Facebook, etc. Can we replicate this picture early on in education (e.g. could really start as early as middle school up to graduate school)?

As a student over the years, I sat through various lectures, but in some courses I really didn’t feel I had a grasp of what I had learned. After graduation, I had to learn on the job, learn by facing reality, learn by fear, learn with others (e.g. peers, mentors, personal learning network), learn by pressure, learn to save lives, and learn to teach or facilitate learning of other pupils. Finally, learning because I love to learn!
I pursued a residency and currently on a fellowship to gain more experience in my skills before transitioning into the real world in which learning is more informal and self-directed.

So, why are we not instigating active learning early on in education in our students? By skipping active learning altogether, we are really jeopardizing their learning and future professional lives by teaching them “everything they need to know for the test”, but in reality, not the truth they need to know to make it in the real world”.
So what are your thoughts on what the future of learning will look like?

You should be aware that courses from top universities such as Harvard and John Hopkins are now being offered for FREE online such as:

So what does this all mean to the world of education? I think the future of education will be students learning on their own via self-directed and informal learning because the information will be available and easily accessible everywhere.

Now, the important component will be to replicate the “real world”. I think it will be a lot more valuable if students come to school to meet as group for active learning or flipped classroom, where they will participate in TOSCEs, OSCEs, laboratory activities, team-based learning activities, problem-based learning activities, etc. Right now, most students tend to not show up to lectures, face-to-face anyways, if attendance is not required. However, these same students do show up for laboratory and group collaboration activities in order to get the hands-on-experience needed to function in the real world.

How will we “educators” assess students’ knowledge? I believe quizzes, exercises, examinations, TOSCEs, OSCEs, etc. should be a continuous process to access their knowledge on every step of the curriculum in order to prepare them to go into practice and assess if they have really learned the material or mastered a skill.

Let’s take higher education to the next level and show our students the truth about what the real world is all about early on in their education! I think building this habit and behavior of functioning independently, but yet collaborating with others along the way, early on in education, prepares one further to what’s about to come in the next phase of their lives.

Will you join me in this journey? What are your thoughts?

~Livia Macedo

Session notes: Leaving the ADDIE model behind

Should we leave ADDIE for SAM? What are your thoughts?

From what I have read on the internet and watched YouTube videos about SAM…it seems that this model is more realistic and what actually happens in practice when you need to deliver a product in a short period of time. I am curious to do some more investigation about this model.

Find out more information here:



I am interested in delivering more elearning content, and decided to sit in on Michael Allen’s presentation on Leaving the ADDIE model behind. I am always looking for a better process to help develop content. Being aware of ADDIE, I was interested in Allen’s new approach. Allen has written this approach in his new book,  Leaving ADDIE for SAM, which should come out in October.

The slides for Allen’s presentation can be found on the Web.

Allen asked, what is the criterion for picking the right process for you? Basically, we do what works for us. Most people probably use ADDIE in a modified form. Regardless of the process, we are typically concerned with a number of issues that relate to the products we create: Do the products you create meet your satisfaction within the constraints? Are the products delivered on time? Are the products delivered within the…

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How Networks Are Changing Social Change

Citation: Kasper G, Scearce D. Working Wikily: How Networks Are Changing Social Change.

Category: Social Media, Education, #EDUC689

Commentary Written By: Livia Macedo

I thought it was interesting the comment about “blur the line between amateurs and experts”. Amateurs are now able to publish their opinions on the internet alongside those of experts via various social media tools (e.g. YouTube, Blog).

I also agree with regards to privacy and security, users must be careful with what they share publicly online as it may come back to haunt them. The concept of “privacy” and “security” will need to be redefined in the world of social media.

One thing I learned this past week is that this new generation of students are losing or not learning the ability to read non-verbal expressions and participating in face-to-face interactions, because they are so used to using technology!

English: Blended learning methodology graphic

English: Blended learning methodology graphic (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

I think there should be a balance between face-to-face interactions and social media networking interactions in education, and that can be achieved via a blended learning environment.

Can Twitter Enhance Active and Informal Learning?

Citation: Kassens-Noor E. Twitter as a teaching practice to enhance active and informal learning in higher education: the case of sustainable tweets. Active Learning in Higher Education 2012; 13:9-21.

Category: Social Media and Education

Commentary Written By: Livia Macedo, PharmD

Twitter can be a powerful collaboration tool.  It can also excite learners and enable critical thinking, rather than a mere distraction in education. Twitter has been used by several educators in the classroom. It can enhance student learning, by facilitating discussions live during the classroom by using “live-tweeting”. It can also be a tool for the student to communicate with the professor and other students outside the classroom setting.

Kassens-Noor, et al. describes Twitter used in the classroom.  Students in one group used Twitter, while the students in another group opted to use traditional diaries. The author mentions that tweets might have been a barrier for reflective thinking. While traditional teaching practices allowed for more in-depth thinking and self-reflective learning. Space limitation might have been a barrier to reflective writing with Twitter. The study found that tweeting fosters team communication and prolonged interactive engagement in the learning process. However, Twitter can constrain critical thinking and self-reflection because of the tweets’ character limit. Limitations with this study included a small sample size and short duration.

Twitter has potential to be a powerful tool in education to engage students in a particular subject matter and to share knowledge among peers by building a network, however, it may not be applicable to every course or assignment.  The instructor needs to use their own judgment of when to incorporate this tool in their course.